Ford C-MAX Energi – New Electric Crossover

Ford C-MAX Energi – New Electric Crossover

Ford C-Max Energi



By John Addison (7/26/12)




2013 Ford C-MAX Energi $29,995 with Tax Credit

With the new 2013 Ford C-Max Energi you have the room of a crossover SUV, a range of 550 miles because it is a plug-in hybrid, and the ability to make many trips in electric mode using a garage charge. The C-MAX Energi has more room than its main competitors the Chevrolet Volt and the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid.

The C-MAX Energi is rated at 95 mpg. Drivers who often drive less than 20 miles in a day may average over 200 mpg. Save at the pump and rarely visit the gas station.

The C-MAX Energi’s price of $33,745 is more than the Prius PHV’s starting of $32,000, but less than the Volt’s starting at $39,145. After Federal Tax Credits, the starting costs are C-MAX Energi at $29,995, Prius PHV at $29,500, and Volt at $31,465.  (IRS Tax Credit Table)  Your price will vary with destination charges, options, and dealers willingness to deal. Leases are available. The Volt and Prius PHV are available from dealers now; the C-MAX Energi by the end of 2012. Competitors generally offer 8-year, 100,000-mile warranties for the expensive lithium-ion battery pack. Ford has not yet made final warranty decisions.

Plug-in hybrids are an engineering marvel. Charge the lithium ion battery in your garage then drive for miles in quiet comfort using only the electric motor. When the battery is depleted, the engine is engaged and you can continue hundreds of miles with the fuel efficiency of a hybrid car. The car’s computer decides when to engage the electric motor, when the engine, and when both. You just drive the plug-in hybrid like any other car.

The 550-mile range of the Ford C-MAX Energi overcomes the range anxiety of driving on all-electric car. Range may not be an issue if you have 2 or more cars in your household. For example, my wife and I have been driving the Nissan LEAF for over one year and range has rarely been an issue. If one of us drives over 60 miles, we use our hybrid car instead of the LEAF.

When I test-drove the Chevrolet Volt it achieved over 40 miles of electric range with its 16kW battery. The 2013 Volt will be rated at 38-miles electric range, up from 35 in 2012; 35 is the miles driven by an average American. When I test-drove a Toyota Plug-In Hybrid (PHV) with its 4.4kW battery, after only 12 miles the gasoline engine engaged. The Volt has 3X the electric range of the Prius PHV. In real world driving, I expect the 2013 Ford C-MAX Energi with its 7.5kW battery to have 2X the electric range of the Prius PHV. For most drivers, the Volt will mainly be fueled with electricity, the Prius PHV with gasoline, and the Ford C-MAX Energi in between.

In some states, such as California, with electric cars you can drive in the HOV lane solo. With hybrids and other cars, you cannot. For some commuters stuck in gridlock, this is a big incentive to get a plug-in hybrid instead saving $2K to $4K for a similar hybrid.

Room for People, Luggage, Work, School, Play

C-MAX is a compact hybrid utility vehicle jam-packed with features and room for five people and cargo. The Chevrolet Volt is more compact and only seats four.

No problem if you are a six-foot, six-inch, driver or passenger. The C-MAX has a high roofline (63.9 inches) offering ample interior space and flexibility. C-MAX offers 99.7 cubic feet of passenger space. This is much more than the Prius PHV, more than the larger non-plugin Prius v, and far more than the Chevrolet Volt. The spacious C-MAX Hybrid also provides greater headroom in both front 41-inches and rear seats 39.4 than the Chevrolet Volt with 37.8 front and 36 rear.

For cargo, C-MAX has 60/40 split-fold rear seats that easily fold flat with 42.8 cubic-feet of space behind the first row and 19.2 cubic-feet behind the second row. For some, the greater passenger and cargo space will be the deciding factor in selecting the C-MAX over any Prius or Volt.

Hands-Free Music, Navigation, Liftgate

Ford C-MAX SmartguageFord C-MAX Hybrid features the company’s innovative hands-free liftgate, allowing for quick and easy access to the cargo area without messing with keys. A gentle kicking motion under the rear bumper opens the liftgate when used in combination with a key fob the user keeps in his or her pocket or purse that tells the car it’s OK to engage. The same motion can close the liftgate. You can make it look easy, or use a martial arts routine that will make your friends’ jaws drop.

The vehicle also features the newest version of MyFord Touch that offers multiple ways to manage your phone, navigation, entertainment and climate functions through voice commands, menus accessed through controls on the steering wheel, touch screens, buttons or knobs.

C-MAX Hybrid also offers the next generation of SmartGauge with EcoGuide. The left cluster also shows Brake Coach, a feature that helps drivers optimize their use of the braking system so that driving range can be enhanced through proper braking techniques. In the right cluster, redesigned imagery of green leaves shows overall driving efficiency – as drivers improve their efficient driving, they are rewarded with more leaves. Ford displays have made it easy to improve fuel-economy when driving their hybrid and electric vehicles.

Ford’s Exciting World Car Strategy Delivers More for the Money

Ford is doing a great job of giving customers more choice while having common global vehicle platforms that drive down cost.

Ford built 2.5 million “C” platform vehicles last year with many common components. The Focus Electric and C-MAX offerings will be built with over a dozen other vehicles on the same assembly line in Wayne, Michigan. Ford controls cost with flexible manufacturing, where it can quickly adjust to market demand.

The C-MAX “maximizes” cargo and passenger space for its C platform. In Europe, over 144,000 C-MAX non-hybrid gasoline and diesel models are on the roads. In the USA, the C-MAX customers can choose either a hybrid or a plug-in hybrid. Ford’s long-term vision is to make its popular models available with the customer’s preferred drive system ranging from EcoBoost engines to hybrids to all-electric. Ford families such as the C-MAX, Focus, and Fusion will increasingly deliver on this customer choice approach.

With the C-MAX, we will see that Ford powersplit hybrids and blended plug-in hybrids share about 85 percent of the same components including electric traction motor, generator, inverters, DC/DC converters, electric accessories, transmission, and engine. Both the C-MAX Energi and C-MAX Hybrid models, with a common chassis, will be built alongside the all-new 2012 Ford Focus and Focus Electric at Ford’s Michigan Assembly Plant in Wayne, Mich.

Ford’s revamped Michigan Assembly Plant is the first facility in the world capable of building a full array of vehicles – gas-powered, electric, hybrid and plug-in hybrid – all on the same production line. That means C-MAX Energi is being built on the same line as C-MAX Hybrid, Focus, Focus Electric and Focus ST.

While the C-MAX Energi nameplate is new to the U.S. market, the technology and design has proven itself already in other ways and in other places with its fresh, modern style that provides plenty of utility.

Like C-MAX Hybrid, C-MAX Energi has projected total system horsepower of 188 – reaching a peak of 195 with a fully charged battery – stemming from the combination of a gasoline engine and a battery-driven electric motor. The C-MAX Energi uses s new 2.0-liter Atkinson-cycle four-cylinder. The Chevrolet Volt only needs a 1.4L engine because it is configured in series to primarily act as a generator.

The 7.5kW lithium battery system, hybrid transmission system and software for C-MAX Energi all were developed in-house. C-MAX Energi also benefits from 20 years of research and innovation behind the software and hardware technology it offers, incorporating many of the nearly 500 patents Ford holds in the area of hybrid technology.

The cost of the new hybrid system is 30 percent less than the previous generation. Three years ago, lithium battery packs cost about $1,000 per kilowatt. Now the cost is closer to $500. By the end of the decade, costs may only be $250 per kilowatt. Ford makes all of its lithium-packs and works with several lithium cell manufacturers to get the best price and battery chemistries separately optimized for battery-electric, plug-in hybrid and hybrid. Ford’s pack and volume strategy will lower costs of hybrid and electric cars.

Competition for the Ford C-Max Energi

Ford C-MAX Hybrid is $4,000 less than the Energi after considering federal tax credit. If you live in an apartment building or multi-tenant complex where you have no garage charging, then this crossover SUV may be a better choice than its exciting plug-in hybrid cousin. The C-MAX Hybrid has more cargo room than the Energi because of its smaller li-ion battery pack. The C-MAX Hybrid competes head-on with the new Prius v, the largest member of the Prii family. If you have access to an outlet for charging, your annual gasoline cost savings may ultimately pay for the extra $4,000 cost of the plug-in hybrid.  Ford C-MAX Website

Chevrolet Volt can be purchased now. Its 38-mile electric range is considerably more than the 20 of the Ford C-MAX Energi. The Energi has a greater gasoline range, but you may still visit the gas station more often in the Ford due to making fewer trips in electric mode. The Ford, however has much greater passenger and cargo room.  Chevy Volt Owners Stories

Prius PHV only has 15-mile electric range compared to over 20 with the Ford C-MAX Energi. After tax credits, there is no real price difference between the two. The C-MAX offers more passenger space and cargo. Yet, many customers have had wonderful experiences with their Toyota hybrids for over 10 years, trust Toyota quality, and will stay with Toyota.

Ford Focus Electric is all-electric in comparison to the C-MAX Energi being a plug-in hybrid. The Focus has a 100-mile electric range, compared to only 20+ for the C-MAX Energi. Although the Focus Electric may meet only 80-percent of your driving needs, if you are in a household with two or more vehicles, then range may never be an issue. You will save big on no gasoline and the Focus Electric starts at only $2,000 more than the C-MAX Energi after benefiting from federal tax credits.

Nissan LEAF is the best selling electric car. My experience as an owner is that this all-electric has an electric range of up to 140 miles on 30 mph streets, but only 60 miles when cruising the freeway while running your air conditioner. My wife and I share the LEAF and also have a hybrid which we use a couple of days weekly and on long-trips. By itself, the LEAF with its limited range would only meet 80 percent of our needs, but with two cars range has never been a problem in over one year. It cost us $40 monthly in electricity to run the LEAF, the cost of one fill-up at a gas station. After federal tax credits, the LEAF cost about the same as the C-MAX Energi and you can buy one now.

Ford is becoming a major force in hybrid and electric vehicles. Customers have been delighted with hybrids such as the Ford Fusion Hybrid and Lincoln MKZ, and are excited about the upcoming Fusion Energi. Fleet managers are running deliveries in the Ford Transit Connect Electric and now ordering the Ford Focus Electric. For people who need the crossover room and flexibility, the new Ford C-MAX Hybrid and C-MAX Energi are generating excitement.

Best Electric Cars for 2012 and 2013

2013 Ford C-MAX Energi Specifications

Vehicle Highlights
Max Seating Capacity 5
Drive (system, Type of Train) Front-Wheel Drive
Transmissions Electronic Continuously Variable (e-CVT)
Wheelbase 104.3
Wheels Available 17″ Aluminum Wheels
Warranty TBD
Exterior Dimensions
Exterior Dimensions (C-MAX Hybrid) Exterior Dimensions (C-MAX Energi)
Wheelbase (in.) 104.3 104.3
Length (in.) 173.6 173.6
Height (in.) 63.9 63.8
Width – Excluding mirrors (in.) 72 72
Width – Including mirrors (in.) 82.1 82.1
Width – Mirrors Folded [in] 75.6 75.6
Front Track (in.) 60.5 60.5
Rear Track (in.) 60.4 60.4
Base Curb Weight (lbs.) 3,607 3,859
Interior Dimensions
Interior Dimensions (C-MAX Hybrid) Interior Dimensions (C-MAX Energi)
Head Room – Front [in] 41 41
Head Room – Rear [in] 39.4 39.4
Maximum Leg Room – Front [in] 43.1 43.1
Leg Room – Rear [in] 36.5 36.5
Hip Room – Front [in] 54.3 54.3
Hip Room – Rear [in] 51.9 51.9
Shoulder Room – Front [in] 55.9 55.9
Shoulder Room – Rear [in] 55.2 55.2
Capacities: Passenger, Luggage, Fuel (C-MAX Hybrid) Capacities: Passenger, Luggage, Fuel (C-MAX Energi)
Seating Capacity 5 5
Passenger Volume (cu. ft.) 99.7 99.7
Cargo Volume behind 2nd row seats (cu. ft.) 24.5 19.2
Cargo Volume behind 1st row seats (with 2nd row seats folded) (cu. ft.) 52.6 42.8
Fuel Capacity (gal.) 13.5 14
Gas Engine Specifications
Gas Engine Specifications (C-MAX Hybrid) Gas Engine Specifications (C-MAX Energi)
Drive Type Front-Wheel Drive Front-Wheel Drive
Engine type 2.0L Atkinson-Cycle I-4 Hybrid Engine 2.0L Atkinson-Cycle I-4 Hybrid Engine
Transmission type Electronic Continuously Variable (e-CVT) Electronic Continuously Variable (e-CVT)
Exhaust Single Chrome-Tipped with Catalytic Converter Single Chrome-Tipped with Catalytic Converter
Projected Horsepower (SAE net@rpm) 141 @ 6000 rpm (91 RON) 141 @ 6000 rpm (91 RON)
Projected Torque (lb.-ft.@rpm) 129 @ 4000 rpm (91 RON) 129 @ 4000 rpm (91 RON)
Compression ratio 12.3:1 12.3:1
Valve lifters Direct Acting Mechanical Buckets (DAMB) Direct Acting Mechanical Buckets (DAMB)
Fuel delivery Sequential Multi-Port Electronic Fuel Injection Sequential Multi-Port Electronic Fuel Injection
Fuel recommended Unleaded Regular Unleaded Regular
Projected Emisions Level SULEV (EPA Smog Rating 8) AT-PZEV (EPA Smog Rating 9)
Fuel Economy Charge Sustain (miles per gallon) 47 city/47 hwy/47 combined mpg TBD
Projected Miles per Gallon Equivalent (MPGe) TBD
Electric Drive System
Electric Motor Specifications (C-MAX Hybrid) Electric Motor Specifications (C-MAX Energi)
Motor type Permanent Magnet AC Synchronous Motor Permanent Magnet AC Synchronous Motor
Battery 1.4kWh Lithium-ion (Li-ion) 7.5kWh Lithium-ion (Li-ion)
Battery Peak Power – Charge Sustain Mode 35 kW 35 kW
Battery Peak Power – Charge Depletion Mode 68 kW
Charging Time (hours) (120v/240v) 7 hrs/2.5 hrs
Projected EV Range TBD
Projected Electric Mode Top Speed 62 mph TBD
Gas Engine / Electric Motor Specifications
Gas Engine/Electric Motor Specifications (Hybrid Model) Gas Engine/Electric Motor Specifications (Plug-in Hybrid Model)
Vehicle Top Speed 115 mph 102 mph
Projected Total System Power (hp) Charge Sustain Mode 188 (140 kW) 188 (140 kW)
Projected Total System Power (hp) Charge Depletion Mode 194 (145 kW)
Chassis Specifications
Front Suspension Independent Short-and Long-Arm (SLA) with Double Lower Ball Joints, Stabilizer Bar
Front Shocks Gas Pressurized
Rear Suspension Independent Multi-link Twist Blade with Stabilizer Bar
Rear Shocks Gas Pressurized
Brakes Power Front/Rear Disc, with Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS) and Regenerative Braking System
Traction Control AdvanceTrac® with RSC® (Roll Stability Control™)
Steering Electric Power-Assisted Steering
Ford reserves the right to change product specifications at any time without incurring obligations.
Prius Plug-in Hybrid Comparison with Chevrolet Volt

Prius Plug-in Hybrid Comparison with Chevrolet Volt

Prius PHV - John Addison Plugs InBy John Addison (7/6/12)


Toyota, the hybrid car leader, is challenging General Motors, the plug-in hybrid car leader. I have driven both the Chevrolet Volt and the Prius Plug-in through a similar mix of freeway, city stop-go, steep ascents and descents, and windy roads along the ocean. Both cars have been a pleasure to drive, whether silently gliding in EV mode, accelerating on to a highway, or navigating turns in the road. But one car gives most drivers more value for the money.

Both cars are stylish hatchbacks with 40/60-split back seats that can drop so that you can haul lots of stuff. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid vehicle (PHV) is a roomier and seats 5. The Volt seats 4. Both cars can fit someone who is at least 6-foot 4-inches in either front or back seats. Both save at the pump by letting you charge with either standard 110v outlets, or by installing a 220v Level 2 charger.

The Prius Plug-in only has a 15-mile electric range in comparison to the Chevrolet Volt’s 35-mile electric range. Prius PHV drivers are mostly fuel with gasoline. Chevrolet Volt drivers are mostly fueling with electricity. All-electric cars like the Nissan LEAF only fuel with electricity.

Many owners of Prius PHV and Chevy Volts do not bother to install a Level 2 charger in their garage.  Both cars can fully charge at night, adding about 4 miles of electric range for each hour of trickle charge. Both can easily use the thousands of public chargers installed across the USA.

Like hybrids, each of these cars uses both electric motors and an internal combustion engine. Unlike hybrids, these cars can use garage or public chargers to put energy into their lithium battery packs. The automotive engineers took different approaches to the two drive systems. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid uses an internal computer chip to decide when to engage the motor, the engine, or both. With enough charge, the driver can touch the EV button and only use the electric motor.

Chevrolet Volt Test DriveGM calls the Volt an extended range electric vehicle. The electric motor is always used to propel the vehicle; the engine is normally used in a series configuration to act as a generator. GM now admits that at times the motor and engine work together. I have always referred to the Volt as a plug-in hybrid.

Because they are plug-in hybrids, with a full tank of gas, range is over 400 miles. No need for range anxiety, just fill-up the tank and go.

The Prius PHV starts at $32,000; the Volt at $39,145. Add delivery and handling to both. By a Prius PHV and get $2,500 back on your next Federal Tax return; buy the Volt and get $7,500 back.

At first glance, the Prius Plug-in cost about $7,500 less than the Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid with a 35-mile electric range in comparison to the Prius PHV’s 15-mile. After federal tax credits, the difference narrows to less than $2,500. After 2 to 4 years, the cost difference disappears with the Chevy’s extended EV range saving that $2,500 at the pump.

Toyota Prius Plug-in Electric Member of Prius Family

This new 2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in (PHV) looks just like the classic Prius Liftback except for the electric charge port covered above the left rear wheel. When I touch Start the useful LED displays light and I’m ready to drive. The car’s default driving mode is ECO for fuel economy. At any time while driving, three buttons on the dash allow convenient driving mode selection – EV, ECO, and Power. I touch EV, step lightly on the accelerator and glide away.

In EV mode, the Prius PHV is only propelled by one of two electric motors. One motor is for propulsion, the other for electricity generation. This Prius PHV is quieter than a Liftback, but unlike the Nissan LEAF, I hear the gasoline engine, which can sometimes idle even in EV mode.  When not driving in EV mode, the Prius PHV delivers about the same fuel economy as the Prius Liftback. The Prius PHV averages 49 mpg in ECO hybrid mode and is rated at 87 mpg overall.

The Prius PHV drive system is based on the proven Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive well in its hybrids for over a dozen years. The full series-parallel hybrid drive system uses imbedded computer chips to automatically engage, as needed the 80-horse power (60 kW) electric motor and/or the 1.8L 98-horsepower (73 kW) gasoline engine. The Chevrolet Volt only needs a 1.4L engine to act as a generator.

Managing the engagement of electric motors and engine is a Hybrid Transaxle, which combines power split planetary gear set ring with speed reduction planetary gear set ring. The car gets great mileage because energy is captured, whenever possible, from braking and energy resistance. On a long downhill, you can shift into “B” for added regen.

The Prius PHV includes a 4.4 kW lithium-battery pack compared with 16 kW for the Volt. The smaller battery only qualifies the Prius PHV for a $2,500 federal tax credit; the Volt $7,500. These plug-in hybrids may be eligible for added incentives from your employer or from your state. In California, where most plug-in vehicles have been sold, both vehicles qualify for the HOV White Sticker, giving solo drivers access to the diamond lane at rush hour. Toyota Prius Plug-in Review and Specifications

Test Drive and Second Opinion

Toyota Prius PHVI asked my friend to join me for a test drive. John had a Prius for seven years before giving it to his daughter when he bought his Chevrolet Volt. I had a Prius for seven years before giving it to charity when we bought our Nissan LEAF. Both John and I were Prius enthusiasts and now we are electric car enthusiasts.

For the test drive, Toyota loaned me a Prius PHV Advanced with a price of  $39,525. For some $7,000 more than the base Prius PHV it included a Premium HDD Navigation with Entune, plug-in hybrid apps, LED headlamps with auto level control, Safety Connect, dynamic radar cruise control, head up display (HUD), and pre-collision system. A Chevrolet Volt with similar options would not cost any more than the Prius PHV after the Federal Tax credit.

After driving 11.8 miles in EV mode, the Prius PHV battery seamlessly engaged the 1.8L engine with the lithium battery too depleted to continue in EV mode. We continued the drive in ECO mode with the Prius PHV delivering the kind of good mileage you would expect from a Prius. It was easy to pass other cars on a freeway ascent. On a steep decent, I shifted to “B” capturing extra regen energy by using the motor as a generator. The Volt also has “B” for extra regen. My LEAF does not.

The Prius PHV handled well on the turns over the ocean cliffs. We stopped for lunch at a Taco Bell perfectly located on the Pacific Ocean. After lunch, I put the Prius in POWER mode for fast acceleration on to Coast Highway. Like the Volt, the Prius has fast acceleration using the electric motor.

Over 33.5 miles, we had traveled freeway, windy roads, and city stop-go traffic averaging 24 miles per hour. The Prius PHV achieved 59 mpg including the EV mode. A Volt would have likely completed the journey purely in electric mode. Both cars have EPA ratings of 95 mpg. Chevrolet Volt Owners Actual Experiences

We both liked the Prius Plug-in. The trunk area has room for John’s golf clubs; with the Volt the 40-split back seat must be dropped to fit them. The Prius seats 5; the Volt 4. Some people have more confidence in the Toyota brand.

But if you’re going to buy a plug-in, the Volt meets average American driver needs in electric-mode and the Prius does not. The Volt’s $2,500 after tax premium is likely to pay for itself in gasoline saved. We like both cars, but John’s keeping his Chevrolet Volt and I’m keeping my Nissan LEAF.

Your Best Choice for a Hybrid or Electric Car

If you love the Prius, you now have a choice of four different cars:

  • Prius Liftback – Midsized interior, 50 mpg, starts at $23,500
  • Prius v – Crossover SUV, 42 mpg, starts at $26,400
  • Prius C – smaller hatchback, best hybrid mpg, starts at $19,000
  • Prius PHV – Midsized interior, 87 mpg, starts at $32,000

Prius PHV will be the best if you want a plug-in hybrid from Toyota. Its starting price is $8,500 more than the best-selling Prius Liftback. The gap narrows to $6,000 after a federal tax credit. Your employer or state may give you added incentives to get the plug-in. The Prius PHV includes a touch-screen navigation system with backup camera and other features, which would be optional extras on the base Prius Liftback. If you get stuck in nasty rush-hour commutes an HOV sticker can have real value. Electric charging is cheap; gasoline fill-ups are expensive. The Prius PHV might pay for itself in a few years compared to the Liftback.

Chevrolet Volt is tough competition for the Prius PHV. The Prius Plug-in cost about $7,500 less than the Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid with a 35-mile electric range in comparison to the Prius PHV’s 15-mile. After federal tax credits, the difference narrows to only $2,500. The Prius PHV seats five, the Volt only four. I have been impressed test-driving both. They are both worth your taking a test drive.

Ford C-MAX Plug-in Hybrid. Later this year, Ford will start selling a five-door, five seat plug-in hybrid hatchback with more room inside than either the Volt or the Prius PHV.  The Ford C-MAX Plug-in is expected to have a 30 mile electric range versus the Prius PHV’s 15. Ford has not yet announced pricing. Ford is also selling the Focus Electric with 100-mile pure electric range.

Nissan LEAF is the best selling electric car. My experience as an owner is that this all-electric has an electric range of up to 140 miles on 30 mph streets, but only 60 miles when cruising the freeway while running your air conditioner. My wife and I share the LEAF and also have a hybrid which we use a couple of days weekly and on long-trips. By itself, the LEAF with its limited range would only meet 80 percent of our needs, but with two cars range has never been a problem in over one year. It cost us $40 monthly in electricity to run the LEAF, the cost of one fill-up at a gas station.

Toyota will have no trouble selling the 15,000 Prius PHV planned for initial production. The 2012 Prius PHV will be an appealing alternative to many who first consider the less expensive Prius Liftback. With only a 15-mile electric range the PHV will not be for everyone. Toyota Motor Corporation is now offering customers a wide-range of choices including the Toyota RAV4 EV, the Scion IQ EV, a family of four Prii, the Camry hybrid, the Highlander 4WD hybrid, five Lexus hybrids, and a growing range of fuel economy offerings for most drivers.